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BREAST SURGERY

   

Augmentation Mammoplasty: Breast Implants

 
In plastic surgery, breast augmentation is one of the most gratifying types of surgery.  Its greatest achievement is obtaining a natural breast in its consistency, movement and shape. The patient in the photograph had mammary hypertrophy and underwent breast augmentation surgery by placing silicone prosthesis.In plastic surgery, breast augmentation is one of the most gratifying types of surgery.  Its greatest achievement is obtaining a natural breast in its consistency, movement and shape. The patient in the photograph had mammary hypertrophy and underwent breast augmentation surgery by placing silicone prosthesis.
In plastic surgery, breast augmentation is one of the most gratifying types of surgery.  Its greatest achievement is obtaining a natural breast in its consistency, movement and shape. The patient in the photograph had mammary hypertrophy and underwent breast augmentation surgery by placing silicone prosthesis.In plastic surgery, breast augmentation is one of the most gratifying types of surgery.  Its greatest achievement is obtaining a natural breast in its consistency, movement and shape. The patient in the photograph had mammary hypertrophy and underwent breast augmentation surgery by placing silicone prosthesis.
In plastic surgery, breast augmentation is one of the most gratifying types of surgery. Its greatest achievement is obtaining a natural breast in its consistency, movement and shape. The patient in the photograph had mammary hypertrophy and underwent breast augmentation surgery by placing silicone prosthesis.

Female patients mainly recur to breast surgery because they wish to increase their breast size due to aesthetic reasons. But there are other reasons: amastia, or lack of breast development; atrophy, or involution usually related to ptosis or breast sagging; post surgery mammary tissue loss, burns,
traumatisms, etc.

Augmentation mammoplasty is applied in patients who have psychic disorders and emotional alterations due to lack or alteration of one or both breasts. It is also used to treat thorax deformities or for reimplantations due to patient's dissatisfaction with previous implants.

Breast implants should not be used or used taking special precautions in the following cases: recent clinical history of mammary abscesses, important diffuse mammary pain, mastitis or breast tumors, persistent or recurring breast cancer, active infection in a certain body area, history of hemorrhage, immune system alterations, hypersensitivity to strange materials, tissue alterations due to thorax irradiation, excessive resection of the upper pectoral muscle. We strongly advise against its use in patients with psychological imbalance or reluctant to undergo possible further revision operations.

 

 Bibliography

• Bettex S, Gailloud-Matthieu MC, Raffoul W, Egloff DV. [Breast augmentation: indications, types of prostheses, surgical techniques, complications, results] Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1999 Sep;119(9):729-37. French.
Brunner CA, Feller AM, Groner R, Dees E, Biefel K, Biemer E. Increase of immunologically relevant parameters in correlation with Baker classification in breast implant recipients. Ann Plast Surg. 1996 May;36(5):512-18; discussion 518-21.
Gasperoni C, Salgarello M, Gargani G. Polyurethane-covered mammary implants: a 12-year experience.Ann Plast Surg. 1992 Oct;29(4):303-8.
Grolleau JL, Lanfrey E, Lavigne B, Chavoin JP, Costagliola M. Breast base anomalies: treatment strategy for tuberous breasts, minor deformities, and asymmetry. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999 Dec;104(7):2040-8.
Hakelius L, Ohlsen L. Tendency to capsular contracture around smooth and textured gel-filled silicone mammary implants: a five-year follow-up. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Nov;100(6):1566-9.
Middleton MS, McNamara MP Jr. Breast implant classification with MR imaging correlation: (CME available on RSNA link) Radiographics. 2000 May;20(3):E1.
Middleton MS. Magnetic resonance evaluation of breast implants and soft-tissue silicone. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 1998 Apr;9(2):92-137.
Newman J. Mammographic evaluation of the augmented breast. Radiol Technol. 1998 Mar-Apr;69(4):319-38; quiz 339-42.
Pinchuk L. A review of the biostability and carcinogenicity of polyurethanes in medicine and the new generation of 'biostable' polyurethanes. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 1994;6(3):225-67. Review.
Reynolds HE, Buckwalter KA, Jackson VP, Siwy BK, Alexander SG. Comparison of mammography, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of silicone-gel breast implant rupture. Ann Plast Surg. 1994 Sep;33(3):247-55; discussion 256-7.
Spear SL, Baker JL Jr. Classification of capsular contracture after prosthetic breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995 Oct;96(5):1119-23; discussion 1124.
Von Heimburg D, Exner K, Kruft S, Lemperle G. The tuberous breast deformity: classification and treatment. Br J Plast Surg. 1996 Sep;49(6):339-45.
Wetherhorn N. Proper disease classification in breast implant cases. Natl Med Leg J. 1996 4th Quarter;7(4):3.

 

 

   
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